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Featured articles from the OVJ documentation center: Vulnerability to Sexual Abuse; the Perception of Women in Science Education; Educational Measures with Juvenile Offenders

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Cuestiones de sociología: Revista de estudios sociales

CAPRIATI, A.J., WALD, G. and CAMAROTTI, A.C., 2020. Vulnerability to Sexual Abuse. Contributions from an Integrated and Community-Based Prevention Model. Cuestiones de sociología: Revista de estudios sociales, no. 22, pp. 1. ISSN 1668-1584

The starting point of the article is a critique of the conventional view of sexual abuse as inexplicable, as a matter exclusive to a group of sick people, mostly male, and their victims, women and children. The first part of the article recovers some concepts, data, and studies to characterise the problem of sexual abuse. Although progress in the recognition of the rights of children and adolescents are positive, sexual abuse is barely recognised as a social problem and its magnitude is underestimated. In the second part of the article, the focus shifts to how to prevent sexual abuse. To contribute to the construction of a social response, we define a comprehensive, community-based work model, to address the individual, social, and structural aspects that affect vulnerability to it.

INFAD. Revista de Psicología

FERNÁNDEZ CÉZAR, R. and SÁEZ GALLEGO, N.M., 2020. The Perception of Women in Science Education in Primary and Secondary Education. Is it Equitable or Stereotyped? International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology: INFAD. Revista de Psicología, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 27-42. ISSN 0214-9877 

Gender equality is a key aspect of today's society and also in science education. Science classes are the source through which scientific information reaches the public. Therefore, this paper examines aspects of science education, posing two hypotheses: the presence of women is scarce; the perception of gender is stereotyped. This is tested by two exploratory studies. The first one studies the illustrations in six science textbooks, 3 from year 6 and 3 from year 7. Four categories were used: complete, partial, group, and according to the gender of the figures in the illustrations, including neutral. The results show a great disparity in the representation of the male and female genera; there are many more male figures. The second explores whether primary students’ gender perception is stereotyped. A high percentage of students agreed with an egalitarian perception of science as a profession. Regarding the acceptance of stereotypes, they are more prevalent among students from year 8 to year 11 than among year 12 and year 13 students. Therefore, the two hypotheses are tested, and the conclusion is that awareness-raising actions on gender equality in formal science education are necessary during compulsory educational stages.

 Pedagogía social: revista interuniversitaria

LOZANO DÍAZ, A., CHACÓN, F. and ROITH, C., 2021. Educational Measures with Juvenile Offenders: The Cases of Germany and Spain. Pedagogía social: revista interuniversitaria, no. 37, pp. 13. ISSN 1989-9742

Juvenile justice approaches cases taking into account the particularities of the psycho-evolutionary and social context of young people. The intervention with juvenile offenders seeks two goals: to rehabilitate the minor and to prevent him or her from re-offending or starting out on a criminal career. This paper uses the comparative method to examine the legal and educational measures applied in two European countries, such as Germany and Spain, to determine their appropriateness. A double analysis was carried out for this purpose. On the one hand, juvenile law, its reforms, results, principles, and the level of punishment for juvenile offenders in each country. On the other hand, the educational measures implemented based on the possibilities allowed by the legal framework. The results show two legal systems for young people with significant differences; the Spanish system is more severe regarding punishment than the German system. The legal operators in Germany and Spain are also reluctant to make the law more severe. It concludes by advocating the use of educational and rehabilitation measures that have proven to be effective in reducing recidivism and increasing reintegration.

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