Reading guide: Strategy for the prevention of gender-based violence with young people in formal and non-formal education 2022

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Reading guide: Strategy for the prevention of gender-based violence with young people in formal and non-formal education  2022

Articles / Papers

What if we tell girls what feminism is so that they can claim a fuller life free of sexist violence from an early age? What if we tell them a different story? This is the basis of the School for Feminist Empowerment which, under the auspices of the Vitoria City Council, will organise courses and activities for children and adolescents from October onwards. Among these activities and workshops, it will teach girls from 10 to 16 years old to be independent, to love themselves as they are, to know how to say "no" when they don't want something and to defend their ideals.

  • BIGLIA, B. y JIMÉNEZ, E., 2015. Jóvenes, género y violencias: hagamos nuestra la prevención. Guía de apoyo para la formación de profesionales. 2015. S.l.: Publicacions URV.

As a result of years of raising awareness and making gender-based violence more visible, there is now a greater identification and social approximation to the phenomenon, despite the fact that, in the collective imagination, it is usually associated only with violence perpetrated against women within a couple's relationship, leaving aside other forms and existing spheres. The aim of this material is to broaden the view and understand the phenomenon of gender violence in a plural way, understanding that, in addition to selective violence against women because they are women, there is also violence against people with non-normative gender expressions or non-heterosexual sexual preferences, such as aggressions against lesbians, gays, bisexuals or transsexuals, for example. This document allows to increase professional competences to facilitate good detection, facilitate prevention activities and empower young women to change.

The Noctámbul@s Observatory on sexual violence in nightlife environments and drug use presented a conference on Sexual violence in digital environments. The conference was divided into two round tables, dedicated to addressing two differential dimensions of sexual violence suffered by women in digital technological environments. The first was dedicated to the conceptualisation and contextualisation of the phenomenon of online sexual violence, developing an in-depth theoretical approach to this social problem from the different angles (legal, family, educational, youth and adolescent sociability) involved in it. The second proposed some experiences, practices and specific platforms for confronting and tackling violence in the digital sphere, the construction of spaces for feminist self-defence and ways of responding to this phenomenon. Some of the main ideas drawn from the conference were also presented, which can help women and other groups who suffer sexual violence via the Internet to confront this problem, but which are framed in the more general context of a necessary transformation of the macho values and male sexual domination underlying patriarchal society.

Legislation requires the media and their professionals to adopt self-regulation mechanisms that guarantee the appropriate dissemination of information on gender-based violence, in accordance with the principles of journalistic ethics. To this end, the Audiovisual Council of Andalusia has drawn up this guide in collaboration with the Equality Working Group, created within the regulatory authority and made up of representatives from the media and journalism sector, as well as institutions, social organisations, trade unions and experts in the field. This document is based on the need to preserve the constitutional right to freedom of information which, in the case of the informative treatment of gender violence, must be reconciled with the responsibility and obligations that our legislation requires of the media and journalists. To this end, an exhaustive analysis has been made of the codes of ethics and recommendations existing in our country, as well as the resolutions and reports drawn up by the CAA in this area..

Cyber-violence against women is emerging as a global problem. The growing number of cases of feminist YouTubers being harassed online demonstrates that this aggression increases when it affects a woman who is also a feminist. This paper aims to explore the scope and strategies of anti-feminist cyber-violence in the comments section of YouTube. In order to respond to this main objective, a case study is used as a starting point: the comments that accompany the video Why I'm... a feminist, published by the American YouTuber Laci Green (2014). A qualitative content analysis is carried out on these comments, the interpretation of which is based on the theory defended by Cole (2015) and based on Foucault's (1975) model of disciplinary rhetoric. According to the results, "insult", "sarcasm", "imposition", "desire to harm", "sexual objectification", "criminalisation/defamation" and "threat" (both general and explicitly sexual) constitute mechanisms of coercion systematically applied to silence feminist women. In parallel, the misunderstanding of feminism, i.e. the defence of an erroneous and stereotypical version of feminism, represents a common pattern with a high potential to promote situations of future cyber-violence. The progressive normalisation of anti-women and anti-feminist cyber-violence requires an urgent response. In addition to social awareness-raising measures, stricter regulation of the Internet will be essential to ensure that respect and empowerment, rather than violence or discrimination, prevail in the virtual world.

Prepared by the Government Delegation for Gender Violence, the main objective of the report is to offer a detailed overview of the perception of the population with respect to various aspects related to Sexual Violence; the attitude with which it is approached (justification/tolerance) and its relationship with the levels of acceptance and rejection, key knowledge in the development of strategies for the prevention and eradication of this expression of male violence.

Social innovation in urban policies is a field that has been little explored, especially in relation to the city from a gender perspective. Feminism, as an empowering discourse, is of great importance for urban policies due to its potential in detecting and assessing the dynamics of urban violence suffered by women. To support this idea, in-depth interviews were conducted with young women (18-26 years old) divided according to their level of commitment to feminism. The differences presented by the interviewees when identifying and explaining the dynamics of harassment and violence suffered allow us to analyse how the presence/absence of feminist discourse intervenes in the way of experiencing aggression in the urban context. In each group, a certain level of critical awareness is combined with the prevailing need to operate as urban agents, which gives rise to different strategies for survival and risk management.

Adolescence is a pivotal period in human development, vital in the shaping of identity and personality; a period of brain activity only comparable to early childhood. Any experience of trauma or violence during this period can have consequences in shaping models, roles and patterns in adult life. The document addresses relationships and violence in adolescence; it sheds some light on gender-based violence among adolescents, to understand not only the numbers, but also its nature and mechanisms, and how we must address it in order to eradicate it. Working with adolescents is essential to help them stop normalising roles and relationships that perpetuate inequality and violence, and to make them see gender equality as desirable and beneficial.

This document contains a series of guidelines for professionals to use when intervening with girls and women with disabilities who are victims of violence, in order to improve the care they receive.

Gender-based violence, as a multidimensional phenomenon sustained by a patriarchal system that highlights the prevailing situation of gender-based inequality, does not only affect the direct victims: women. Several studies have corroborated the influence that exposure to contexts in which gender-based violence takes place has on the psychosocial development of children. Girls and boys suffer the consequences of this type of aggression, whether as direct or indirect victims, making them a priority group to be taken into account in a comprehensive approach to this complex phenomenon. From this we can see the need, not only to make the problem visible, but also to articulate strategies for its prevention. This article explores the current situation of minors as victims of gender violence, offering an approach to the phenomenon in Spain, as well as an analysis of the preventive measures, both at primary, secondary and tertiary level, that can be considered in this regard from the perspective of social work.

"Betaurreko moreak" is a guide on coeducation produced with educators and technicians from Gaztematika's services, the result of a process that has lasted three years. This work has been carried out in collaboration with the Arremanitz cooperative and its aim is to ensure that equality in services aimed at children and adolescents in Gipuzkoa is provided in the most appropriate way possible, as well as to contribute to its achievement. The guide is divided into several sections that cover theoretical knowledge together with practical aspects. For example, there are explanations on coeducation, criteria aimed at educators, guidelines for the design of evaluation systems or annexes that help to develop different activities..

A proper understanding of a problem is one of the most solid guarantees for the development of effective and efficient care policies. Nowadays, violence against women has given rise to a wide variety of theoretical positions and explanations from different branches of knowledge, which have resulted in the development of legal, psychosocial and assistance measures, etc. that aim to prevent, attend to and contribute to eradicating this violence

The different professionals who care for children whose mothers are exposed to gender violence cover different roles from their respective disciplinary frameworks. Our aim is to find out the perspectives they adopt from their fields of intervention on the gender-based violence to which children are exposed and how they perceive their role in the face of this scourge, as well as to gather their perspectives on improvements in care for children. This research is important to value the different multidisciplinary contributions and to reveal the gaps and lines of improvement. To this end, we carried out a qualitative phenomenological study with narrative interviews with women professionals from different disciplines (nurses, lawyers and social workers) who are experts in gender and who deal with minors exposed to violence. Their voices trace a map of disciplinary conceptions and professional roles in the face of gender violence, as well as a list of specific actions with minors.

Violence against women in public spaces has serious consequences on their mobility, segregating, limiting and excluding them, as fear and lack of security can affect their empowerment and personal, academic and professional progress. Therefore, the aim of this article is to study the perceptions of university women and men on the elements that make up the dimensions of sexual harassment in public spaces, intervention strategies against sexual violence, and safety-oriented actions. With respect to the dimension of manifestations of sexual harassment in public spaces, women are the ones who receive greater manifestations of violence than men; the university women who are most at risk are those who do not have someone to accompany them to safe transport and those who are employed; the sexual harassment behaviours they frequently receive range from whistling to sexual attacks. Men, on the other hand, are able to move around more freely. Finally, with regard to factors that integrate intervention strategies and safety-oriented actions, it is imperative that universities work together with the government to implement interventions to mitigate the phenomenon; this requires the participation of university youth. 

  • JIMÉNEZ-DELGADO, M., DE-GRACIA-SORIANO, P., JAREÑO-RUIZ, D. y GONZÁLEZ-CHOUCIÑO, M.A., 2019. Relaciones de género en la sociedad posmoderna: percepciones y actitudes de estudiantes jóvenes sobre las relaciones de poder en las parejas. Revista de Sociología de la Educación-RASE, 12. lib., 1. zk., 74-91. or. ISSN 2605-1923. DOI 10.7203/RASE.12.1.13256. 

This article presents the results of a project that arose from the concern of a public secondary school (ESO) to find out what gender relations are like among its students. The theoretical framework that helps to contextualise the results presented is centred on the theories of power, love and affection, and the impact of ICT. The aim of the study is to diagnose how power relationships are expressed in couples in educational centres. In this way, it is hoped to be able to obtain and propose elements that will allow the centres to generate strategies for future action based on the emotional frameworks of power relationships in couples. To this end, a quantitative tool has been designed to contribute to the evaluation of what these relationships are like. The questionnaire was administered to a sample of 140 students in the third and fourth years of ESO aged between 14 and 18. Subsequently, a comparative analysis was carried out with another sample of 192 first and second year undergraduate students, mainly aged between 18 and 20, in order to increase the age range and better assess the experience. The analysis of the data obtained shows the existence of statistically significant differences by age, sex and experience as a couple, as well as the importance of communication for the daily process of affective-sexual relationships. After the analysis and interpretation of the data, it is concluded that power relationships in couples are masked due to a romantic conception of them.

This article is based on the data obtained in the doctoral thesis "El Iceberg Digital Machista" and uses a qualitative methodology to explore, from a gender and (cyber)feminist perspective, the sexual and/or sexist cyberbullying suffered by girls in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country (ACBC). In order to tackle this reality, 9 discussion groups were held with students in the 4th year of ESO and 1st year of Bachillerato in the ACBC (3 for girls, 3 for boys and 3 mixed), as well as 2 telematic forums. This qualitative methodological gearing has made it possible to analyse the different forms of harassment suffered by girls, and to delve deeper into the patriarchal/machist and sexist structures that underlie these forms of cyber-violence. Among the most relevant results, it is worth highlighting that, just as in offline reality, gender patterns and asymmetrical relationships are reproduced on social networks, and, therefore, sexist violence. Specifically, on social networks there are specific forms of cyber-violence against girls, who are more insulted because of their physique, sexually intimidated, and receive more sexist comments than boys.

Gender-based violence is a social problem that involves society as a whole. Research carried out in this field shows that this violence affects women and other non-normative subjects of all ages, cultures, social classes and educational levels; likewise, the contexts in which it occurs are multiple and varied, the university being one of them. Indeed, numerous studies carried out among the university population, especially in the Anglo-Saxon sphere, reflect very worrying rates of sexual aggression and gender violence. However, both in Spain and in other EU countries, support services for female students in these situations are little known and very limited. The lack of clear institutional procedures and appropriate support often leads to secondary victimisation among the population affected by such violence. The project Supporting victims of sexual violence in the university context: creating stable training models (USVreact) is a two-year action-research project, implemented thanks to co-funding from the Daphne III programme of the European Commission. Its main objective has been to design, pilot and evaluate trainings that have a positive impact on preventing and addressing sexual violence in the university context.

  • MARTÍNEZ GÓMEZ, J.A., BOLÍVAR SUÁREZ, Y., REY ANACONA, C.A.R., RAMÍREZ ORTIZ, L.C., LIZARAZO OJEDA, A.M. y YANEZ PEÑÚÑURI, L.Y., 2021. Esquemas Tradicionales de Roles Sexuales de Género, Poder en las Relaciones y Violencia en el Noviazgo. Revista iberoamericana de psicología y salud, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1-16. ISSN 2171-2069. 

The present study aimed to assess the relationship between sexual double standards, power in sexual relationships, gender role attitudes and dating violence. The results showed that participants use dating violence in a bidirectional way. Furthermore, sexist attitudes, sexual double standards and power in relationships were directly and significantly correlated with various types of violence received and perpetrated. The results emphasise the importance of studying the relationship between traditionalist gender attitudes and behaviours and dating violence, to be included in future research for the design of dating abuse prevention programmes.

The aim of this article is to explore and review the social representations and the cognitive and affective meanings that adolescent female victims have constructed about the female body. The reflection will be immersed in "that" that lies beneath their skin; that body constituted as an object of desire for those who exploit it or act as intermediaries; the social representations that the different actors involved in this violation of rights have about the victims' bodies were investigated, as well as a frank critique of the social and state connivance with this scourge. In this sense, issues are raised that challenge some expert and institutional conceptualisations of this problem, such as the commercial category, which attempts to explain the type of relationship established between the exploiter and an adolescent. This text is the result of more than two years of interaction with victims of sexual exploitation, observing and recording in a field diary this issue in different contexts, which enables the points of view presented here. In an experiential workshop with adolescent female victims, constructions were obtained that lead us to understand what we could call a reified body, whose social representation is basically that it is "a thing" for the enjoyment of another, without any interest in their rights or the harm that is caused. The type of violence suffered by victims of sexual exploitation has been systematically unloaded on their bodies, which justifies the relevance of this discussion.


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  • FUNDACION CERMI MUJERES. Protocolo para la atención a mujeres con discapacidad víctimas de violencia. Fundación Cermi Mujeres, 2021. 978-84-18433-21-4.
  • GUERRERO MOLINA, M. Prevenir la violencia de género desde la escuela. Programa para educar en la igualdad. CCS, 2021. ISBN 978-84-1379-016-9
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The reading guides on male violence from previous years can be found on the website of the Youth Observatory.